In Funcal the "biggest" think to do is the "basket ride".
On other cruise lines, in Barcelona and Mallorca, they supplied free shuttles into the center of town.... so you could manage to tour on your own if you wanted to. If you haven't been before, a good tour book is a good idea... especially for Barcelona.
There's alot to see in Barcelona... so a tour of some kind might be in order. We arranged for a private driver/guide there last time, through Port Promotions.
If you could get 6 people from the group to do it together, it'd likely be cheaper than ships bus tours. Make sure you leave time for strolling Las Ramblas.
There's no tendering in any of these ports of call.
The train to Civitavecchia wouldnt be a problem. The problem might be getting the luggage from the train ship to the ship. If I recall, not many taxis around. Though that could have changed in the last couple of years.