Thanks everybody for you suggestions and feedback.
We ended up booking an inside room on the Coral Princess. This is a one-way northbound cruise starting in Vancouver and ending in Whittier. It stops in Ketchikan, Juneau and Skagway and also cruises Glacier Bay and College Fjord. We'll be flying into Seattle the day before our departure and then flying home from Anchorage 2 days after the ship's arrival. My wife and I are super excited and can't wait!
I still need to fill in a couple of blanks before and after the cruise. I am hoping we can ride the Amtrak Cascades train from Seattle to Vancouver, but may end up taking the Quick Coach if I can't make the train work. Also need to figure out a hotel room for 1 night in Vancouver. On the other end in Whittier, I understand that there are a couple of day cruises out of Whittier like 26 Glaciers. I'm hoping that we can disembark from the Coral Princess and immediately climb aboard one of those day cruises. Then maybe ride the train or a shuttle through the tunnel into Anchorage for an overnight stay. Our flight does not leave until midnight the next day, so we'll have a full day for activities in Anchorage and I need to figure out what to do there.
There are quite a few little pieces that are left to put together, but I think we have the big choices (i.e. which ship) out of the way. I noticed that the Celebrity cruises were on sale for cheaper than Princess, but they do not visit Glacier Bay and it seems like they are more traditional with their dining and oriented toward luxury travelers. Nothing wrong with that, but I think that Princess is going to be a better fit for us.
Thanks again for all of your advice!