Well, the first thing most people do if they haven't had serious damage is take care of cleaning and re-balancing the pool, clean the car, sweep and hose off the patios, sidewalks and driveways, and sweep and dust the whole house top to bottom, because that dust gets into all the crooks and crevasses.
However, there is often more serious damage to consider. There are often downed power lines and trees which have fallen on and damaged houses and cars. This is a terrible time of year to be left without power. Yesterday it was 105 degrees. They didn't get power restored to all affected customers until mid-morning today. Thank goodness this didn't happen on Saturday when it was 118 degrees!
I am very lucky to have never had any real damage where I live, but that mile-high, 60-mile wide wall of wind and dust was the worst any of us can ever remember seeing! It's quite a phenomenon, but one we see in varying intensities many times every year during the monsoon.