so sorry to hear about this! this is always one of those nightmares when cruising. because once that ship sets sail, there's not much one can do!
the insurance part is always confusing for me too. when it comes to cruising, we always use a TA who can at least explain things better.
TIP: one thing we are trying out for the first time for our southern caribbean cruise out of florida is to book a longer vacation by a day or two and fly into the city a day or so earlier. it's not a guarantee that things won't go wrong but i am hoping it lessens the risk.
still - i sympathize because not everyone has that much vacation time. and it IS added expense as you will require booking hotel nights and probably a taxi from the hotel to the port.