If docking time is 8:00AM, there's no way you're going to make a 10:45 flight. Once docked, Customs and Immigration have to come on board and do their thing before anyone gets off the ship. I've never seen that take less than hour. Even if you went to the purser's station and requested early deembarkation, you still have to wait for the "all clear" from customs, pass through customs, get your luggage, get a cab, get to the airport, check your luggage, go through security there, and get to your gate in time before it closes. And I know from personal experience, some airlines won't check in passengers with less than 45 minutes before a scheduled flight.
Then there's the issue of the airlines being able to keep to their schedule. I know you said leaving a day early is not an option, but the way the airlines are these days, I personally would never, never plan to fly the same day as the sail, or not have some leeway on the other end as well. Even if weather is not a factor, I can't tell you how many times I've been delayed because of "mechanical" problems, where you just sit there and WAIT! That ship isn't going to wait for you, and IMO the cost of a 30-day cruise is too big a chunk of change to risk missing the ship.
The only reasonble alternative that I can see for you would be to pay a higher fare, buy travel insurance from the cruise line, and book the air through them. For a slighter higher fee, they will even allow you to pick and choose your own flights. But to me it would all be worth it because if anything happens to your plane, they absolutely guarantee to get you on that ship, at no additional cost, even if it's left the port. As for getting back at a reasonable time to get back to work the same day you dock, be prepared to go straight from the airport to your job. Better yet, call in sick, because your brain is going to feel like mashed potatoes between the jet lag and all the stress you've been through. Good luck!