I've been to Barrow and will be returning in March. I wouldn't consider it as a day trip so allow at least 1 overnight. It pays to bring some of your own food, very very costly. A great deal depends why you are going there??? It is a true subsistance native village. Most people go for the option of being "on top of the world"??? Research "tour" options and what they offer, I went independent.
we have a very good friend we met last time we were in Alaska a few years ago she was the bus drive that took us from one place to another and we have been emailing her every since. That is where she is from so if you have any questions let me know and I can ask her for you.
Barrow is a large hub city on Arctic Ocean. It has about 5000 citizens, jet airport, spread over several miles. Cabs are fixxed price ($5 for any distance). Food is very expensive, you can spend $15 on hamburger and fries, or $20 for a 2 encheliada plate. The grocery store is quite modern, but fresh items are also pricey (every thing comes by jet to Barrow).
Even though Barrow is not the more typical Alaska village of 200-500 people with little more than small buildings and few vehicles, the setting is pretty different from anything you would see elsewhere in either Alaska or the lower 48. There is a nice museum, many different tours you can take, and just walking the beach and putting your toes in the Arctic Ocean can be fun (watch out for the polar bears!).
One day is probably not enough, but you would get a taste. By spending one night you will see the midnight sun.
Having lived in Alaska 25 years, I find visiting Barrow a most interesting experience, much different from our much more comfortable settings in the southern part of the state.