Aft - at, near or towards the stern
Bow - the forward part of the vessel.
Forward - toward the bow of the boat.
Port - left side of the ship when facing forward
Starboard - right side of the ship when facing forward
Stern - after end of a vessel
Deck = floor
Bulkhead = wall
Overhead = Ceiling
Ladder = Stairs
Below = going down
poopdeck = high aft deck
head = bathroom
Rack = Bed
galley = dining room
swab = mop
abeam = off to the side
quay = dock
line = rope
muster = attend or gather
gee-dunk = snack bar
knot - measurement of speed
fathom = depth
Leeward = away from the wind direction
Windward = I think that is easy enough to guess <G>
My goodness there are hundreds of them but those are some that popped off my head
galley = dining room (Actually, the galley is the kitchen!)
quay = dock (pronounced "key" not "kway"!)
knot - measurement of speed= "one nautical mile per hour"
fathom = depth (a fathom is 6 feet)
a few more:
weather deck(s)- decks that are open to the weather (i.e., not enclosed)
bridge- area where the ship is controlled/steered
halyard- rope/wire for flying flags
rail- protective fencing around the weather decks
wake- frothy water trailing behind a moving ship (actually, a ship has 2 wakes...one formed as the bow cuts through the water, and the other by the stern and the engines.)
make fast- tie up (e.g., to the dock)
berth- (1) bed (2) spot where a ship can be docked (also, "slip")
Although it as been correctly stated here, several posters are using the term aft incorrectly. Aft is NOT the back of the ship. Aft is a direction you are moving in on the ship which means you are proceeding towards the rear (STERN) of the ship.
Foorward is a direction you are moving in which means towards the front (BOW) of the ship. Sometimes these terms also mean which half of the ship Foorward meaning the front half and aft meaning the back half. Example, the Lido deck buffet area is on deck 12 aft (deck 12 towards the back of the ship).