Most ships do have an ATM on board. I haven't seen them on HAL but some have reported they are there. There will be an additional charge for using them.
You may get money from the casino that is charged to your ship's account. If that account is charged to your credit card then it is the same as charging it to your credit card.
There are also ATM machines in most ports. I would advise that you use a BANK ATM with the Cirrus or PLUS logo to obtain cash. There is less of a chance of being charged additional fees for using these machines. Convenience store or port ATM machines usually add additional fees.
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"There is a great difference between being well traveled and just having been to many places." ~Me
I've also seen it happen that ATM's on board run out of cash. They stock the machines at the start of the cruise only and it is purely random whether that will be adequate or not. We take extra money in the form of traveler's checks. Safer than cash and, if we don't need it, easy to cash back in when we get home. One thing we have learned is that problems can arise on the way back home, so I don't want to get off the ship with nothing in my pocket.
Which cruise line are you sailing? If it is RCI, you can go to the casino and get cash. I just told them I needed it for gambling. ($2000 per day is allowed.) You just have to do this while the ship is at sea. This charge will be put on your account that you will pay off with your credit card at the end of the cruise. I know that some lines charge a fee for this, but RCI doesn't.
Mariner of the Seas 3/30/08
"Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn't do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover."