Hi Heartly 2002,
When you arrive in Sydney on the Volendam, it will most likely dock at Sydney Cove. From that location you are in sight of the Opera House, Harbour Bridge, Botanical Gardens, Historical area and shopping areas. The Harbour Ferries operate from this location also and travel to Taronga Zoo, Manly Beach and many other locations around Sydney Harbour.
Buses from this area also travel to the Bondi Beach area, a 15 minute trip.
Most of the sights you can walk to and the ferry trips are just a few dollars each way.
My wife and I did a cruise on the Volendam to Alaska about three years ago, it is a lovely ship.