Carnival does. They have a golf pro on the ship who also goes on the golf excursions. If you check Carnival.com, you can pull up a listing of shore excursions for each port so you can see if they have anything for you.
Hi: My dh is an avid golfer and Celebrity usually has a golf pro and clinic onboard. The golf pro can arrange golf excursions and often organises drive and putting competitions onboard. On some ships we have been on, partners/wives of golfers get freebies like a spa discount or free massage session if I remember rightly.
I am not a golfer myself but the golf pros have always accommodated me as a "ride a long". Although we have pre-booked or booked golf excursions on board, we only do so if the ship is docking for a short time (that way you are sure you don't get left behind and/or the golf pro gets you back onboard before she sails!). Ordinarily, we look up the golf course on-line and pre-book a tee time over the 'phone before we leave and just grab a cab when we dock - sometimes it is more economical to do this but be sure you will finish and be able to get back to the ship on-time!
If you can find another golfing couple, it can work out even cheaper as you save on the transport costs.
Mercury, Alaska - Sept.1998
Rhapsody OTS M.Riv - Oct. 2000
Century, E. Carib. Oct.2002
Constellation, S. Carib. Nov. 2004
Summit, M.Riv. Oct 2005